Vitamin B-1 (thiamine hcl) 2 mg 133%
Vitamin B-2 (as riboflavin) 2 mg 118%
Niacinamide 10 mg 50%
Vitamin B-6 (as pyridoxine hydrochloride) 10 mg 500%
Folic Acid 50 mcg 13%
Vitamin B-12 (as cyanocobalamin) 100 mg 1667%
Calcium (carbonate) 50 mg 5%
Magnesium (oxide) 50 mg 13%
SAM-e 10 mg *
Ashwagandha (7% extract) 30 mg *
GABA 100 mg *
Chamomile (4:1 extract) 100 mg *
5-HTP (5 Hydroxytryptophan) 25mg *
DMAE 25 mg *
Other Ingredients: Cellulose,magnesium stearate, silicon dioxide and vanilla flavor (added for aroma).
What is DMAE?
DMAE is a liquid organic compound that’s naturally produced in the brain; it’s also found in sardines, anchovies, squid and salmon. It is sold in health-food stores as a supplement that enhances brain function and mood.
DMAE has several industrial and commercial applications. As of 2002, half of the DMAE producted in the United States was used to make flocculants, or substances that promote particle clumping, for wastewater treatment plants. Other industrial products that contain DMAE include polyurethane lacquers and foams, water-based paint and surface coating, and corrosion inhibitor formulas.
In pharmaceuticals, DMAE is used to treat central nervous system and brain conditions. Proponents claim that DMAE increases the brain’s production of acetylcholine, which affects functions such as short-term memory, learning, REM sleep and attention. However, research hasn’t established an ironclad link between DMAE and acetylcholine production. DMAE study findings are often contradictory, so the supposed benefits of DMAE are quite controversial.
The most common DMAE claim is that it improves memory, concentration and intellectual function. According to the NYU Langone Medical Center, however, there aren’t any clinical studies that support this claim. DMAE has been used successfully to treat patients with ADHD, but was deemed unsuccessful in treating patients with Alzheimer’s disease or Huntington’s chorea. A 1995 study found, however, that rats that were given DMAE showed improvements in working memory performance.
Dr. Perricone alleges that DMAE decreases anxiety, boosts dopamine effects and improves energy. He also touts DMAE as a wrinkle-fighting agent that can tighten and tone skin and reduce the appearance of fine lines. A 2005 study found that consumer skincare products containing DMAE may have anti-inflammatory effects that improve skin firmness and muscle tone, but the study’s authors expressed a need for further studies that compare DMAE products to antioxidant creams and alpha-hydroxy acids.
5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is a chemical that the body makes from tryptophan (an essential amino acid, which you get from food). After tryptophan is converted into 5-HTP, the chemical is then changed into another chemical called serotonin (a neurotransmitter, which relays signals between brain cells). 5-HTP dietary supplements help raise serotonin levels in the brain. Since serotonin helps regulate mood and behavior, 5-HTP may have a positive effect on sleep, mood, anxiety, appetite, and pain sensation.
5-HTP is not found in the foods we eat, although tryptophan is. Eating foods with tryptophan does not increase 5-HTP levels very much, however. As a supplement, 5-HTP is made from the seeds of an African plant called Griffonia simplicifolia.
In 1989, the presence of a contaminant called Peak X was found in tryptophan supplements. Researchers believed that an outbreak of eosinophilic myalgia syndrome (EMS, a potentially fatal disorder that affects the skin, blood, muscles, and organs) could be traced to the contaminated tryptophan, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration pulled all tryptophan supplements off the market. Since then, Peak X was also found in some 5-HTP supplements, and there have been a few reports of EMS associated with taking 5-HTP. However, the level of Peak X in 5-HTP was not high enough to cause any symptoms, unless very high doses of 5-HTP were taken. Because of this concern, however, you should talk to your health care provider before taking 5-HTP, and make sure you get the supplement from a reliable manufacturer. (See "Precautions" section.)
5-HTP may help treat a wide variety of conditions related to low serotonin levels, including the following, but there is not much evidence for any of these uses:
Some small studies indicate that 5-HTP may work as well as certain antidepressant drugs to treat people with mild-to-moderate depression. Like the class of antidepressants known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which includes fluoxetine (Prozac) and sertraline (Zoloft), 5-HTP increases the levels of serotonin in the brain. One study compared the effects of 5-HTP to fluvoxamine (Luvox) in 63 people and found that those who were given 5-HTP did just as well as those who received Luvox. They also had fewer side effects than the Luvox group. However, these studies were too small to say for sure if 5-HTP works. More and larger studies are needed.
Three studies have suggested that 5-HTP can improve symptoms of fibromyalgia, including pain, anxiety, morning stiffness, and fatigue. Many people with fibromyalgia have low levels of serotonin, and doctors often prescribe antidepressants. Since 5-HTP, like antidepressants, raises levels of serotonin in the brain, it may work too. However, it does not work for all people with fibromyalgia, and more studies are needed to understand its effect.
In one study, people who took 5-HTP went to sleep quicker and slept more deeply than those who took placebo. These researchers recommend 200 - 400 mg at night to stimulate serotonin, but it may take 6 - 12 weeks to be fully effective.
Migraines and Headaches
Antidepressants are sometimes prescribed for migraine headaches. Some studies suggest that high doses of 5-HTP may help people with various types of headaches, including migraines. However, the evidence is mixed, with other studies showing no effect.
A few small studies have looked at whether 5-HTP can help people lose weight. In one study, those who took 5-HTP ate fewer calories, although they were not trying to diet, compared to those who took placebo. Researchers believe 5-HTP led people to feel more full (satiety) after eating, so they ate less.
A follow-up study, which compared 5-HTP to placebo during a diet and non-diet period, found that those who took 5-HTP lost about 2% of body weight during the non-diet period and another 3% when they dieted. Those taking placebo did not lose any weight. However, doses used in these studies were high, and many people had nausea as a side effect. If you are seriously overweight, see your health care provider before taking any weight-loss aid. Remember that you will need to change your eating and exercise habits to lose more than a few pounds.
You can’t get 5-HTP from food. The amino acid tryptophan, which the body uses to make 5-HTP, can be found in turkey, chicken, milk, potatoes, pumpkin, sunflower seeds, turnip and collard greens, and seaweed.
5-HTP is made from tryptophan in the body, or can be taken as a supplement. Supplements are made from extracts of the seeds of the African tree Griffonia simplicifolia. 5-HTP can also be found in many multivitamin and herbal preparations.
How to Take It
5-HTP should not be given to children.
Health care professionals generally recommend 50 mg of 5-HTP taken 1 - 3 times per day. Some studies have used higher doses, but because 5-HTP can be toxic at high doses, you should talk to your health care provider before raising the dose. Your health care provider can help determine the right dose for you.
Because of the potential for side effects and interactions with medications, you should take dietary supplements only under the supervision of your health care provider.
Tryptophan use has been associated with the development of serious conditions, such as liver and brain toxicity, and with eosinophilic myalgia syndrome (EMS), a potentially fatal disorder that affects the skin, blood, muscles, and organs (see "Overview" section). Such reports prompted the FDA to ban the sale of all tryptophan supplements in 1989. As with tryptophan, EMS has been reported in 10 people taking 5-HTP.
Side effects of 5-HTP are generally mild and may include nausea, heartburn, gas, feelings of fullness, and rumbling sensations in some people. At high doses, it is possible that serotonin syndrome, a dangerous condition caused by too much serotonin in the body, could develop. Always talk to your health care provider before taking higher-than-recommended doses.
People with high blood pressure or diabetes should talk to their doctor before taking 5-HTP.
If you take antidepressants, you should not take 5-HTP (see "Possible Interactions" sections).
People with liver disease, pregnant women, and women who are breastfeeding should not take 5-HTP.
SAM-e (S-adenosylmethionine) is thought to increase chondrocytes (the cells that make up cartilage), cartilage thickness and possibly decrease chondrocyte damage. SAM-e has become a popular dietary supplement used to treat osteoarthritis. Here are 10 things you should know about SAM-e.
1 - SAM-e, which stands for S-adenosylmethionine, is a naturally occurring compound in the body.
SAM-e, which is sold as a dietary supplement, is either made from fermented yeast or totally synthesized. SAM-e is produced by methionine (a sulfur-containing amino acid) and ATP (adenosine triphosphate) in the body.
2 - SAM-e is found in every human cell of the body.
SAM-e is thought to be involved in more than 35 biochemical processes in the body. As a dietary supplement, SAM-e has several therapeutic indications:
treats pain, stiffness, swelling of the joints
rebuilds cartilage and relieves osteoarthritis symptoms
eases symptoms of fibromyalgia
eases symptoms of bursitis and tendinitis
relieves chronic low back pain
3 - SAM-e works relatively fast.
SAM-e is recognized as an effective anti-inflammatory and analgesic (pain-reliever) for patients with osteoarthritis. If SAM-e is an effective treatment for you, results may be felt in about a week.
4 - SAM-e works together with B vitamins.
When taking SAM-e, it is important to also supplement your diet with vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and folate. Chemically-speaking, with the help of B-vitamins, SAM-e gives up a methyl group to surrounding tissues and organs and regulates several biochemical processes. For example, SAM-e helps maintain cell membranes, removes toxic substances from the body, and produces mood-enhancing neurotransmitters.
5 - SAM-e is a prescription medication in Europe and a dietary supplement in the United States.
SAM-e has been used for over 20 years in Europe to treat arthritis and depression. Since it is not marketed as a prescription medication in the United States as it is in Europe, be careful and cautious about the brand and quality of SAM-e that you purchase. Choose a dietary supplement brand with a good reputation.
6 - SAM-e has been shown to be as effective as NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) for the treatment of osteoarthritis.
Many clinical trials performed in Europe and also in the United States have concluded that SAM-e is as effective as NSAIDs in reducing pain and improving functional limitations in osteoarthritis patients. There also appeared to be fewer adverse effects with SAM-e than with NSAID use.